AflQM. CONJUNCTIONS. 101
Conjunctions—The usual word for ' and * is ckam or citing. It is most often a
copula between two phrases and then usually comes between the two, It, however,
appears almost anywhere m a sentence, Examples are,—
nvnirlo jwi-H, chain chdm-dohi kun-phu-lnng^ he wegit, and associated with a man
aii-mn pha Un-bii-dl, nuny-tang pka, Hiring bai man chum, fetch the best robe,
and put it on his body Here cMm is at the end of the second clause.
hu chat% and the cow Here it is the second word in the clause
shunt) kau hn-me tet chum phrai-jaii-shl, and (I went to see) if my cow had gone
there. Here it is the penultimate word of the clause
khau bd-M kan tct cMng md-jau hdn nang shau, and they said I came there to see
the younger sister. Here chdng is in the middle of a dependent clause,
immediately preceding the word doing function, as a verb.
tit-la man nanrj ehati ai lap chang tndn la, but also (chang) he says to hide the
disgrace of his younger sister.
Qham . . . . cham, moans ( both . . . and*, as in Jsin-klin cMm, hitp*b(ti cMm>
they both consume, and lay by. In such cases cham is always at the end of each of the
Other words used with the. meaning ' and ' are,—
M'ant why-front, and.
poi, excess, and.
poi'dnt and-before, and.
poi-lm-liing, again-after-hack, and, moreover.
The -wards used for ' and1 m the cognate languageu are,
Shan, f«ny, tA,, U
Siamese, ka, U
Other words used as conjunctions are,-"
sJidngt shting-ld, if.
't indicates the apodosis of a conditional sentence.
i, because, therefore,
if on-accotint-of as this, in order that.
Interjections,— ihe only interjections which I haye met in Ihom are «i suffixed
to the vocative case and m1c-chdt aJaa. Ai is always written ha, It is a curious fact
that the vocative particle is written irregularly in all the Northern Tai languages includ-
Order of words.-— The statement that the order of words in a sentence is a charac-
teristic pocidiarity of the Tai forms of speech, and that, hence, the function which a word
performs is dependent on its position in relation to other words, is only true, in full
strictness, with regard to the modem languages of the group. In earlier times much
greater freedom existed, and even to the present day, in Siamese* the object, although it
usually follows the verb, sometimes precedes it.1
1 Sea I1 W K. Matter m ZL D, M. Q zltui, 199 Compare Conady, Stne Indoelunetwte Gawrits denominat